The blood orange is a variety of orange (Citrus × sinensis) with crimson, almost-blood-colored flesh. The fruit is smaller than an average orange; its skin is usually pitted, but can be smooth. The distinctive dark flesh color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, a family of antioxidant pigments common to many flowers and fruit, but uncommon in citrus fruits. The flesh develops its characteristic maroon color when the fruit develops with low temperatures during the night. Sometimes there is dark coloring on the exterior of the rind as well, depending on the variety of blood orange. The skin can be tougher and harder to peel than that of other oranges.
The cultivar named Tarocco is thought to be derived from an exclamation of wonder expressed by the farmer who was shown this fruit by its discoverer. It is a medium-sized fruit and is perhaps the sweetest and most flavorful of the three types of blood oranges. The most popular table orange in Italy, it is thought to have derived from a mutation of the “Sanguinello.” It is referred to as “half-blood”, because the flesh is not accentuated in red pigmentation as much as with the Moro and Sanguinello varieties. It has thin orange skin, slightly blushed in red tones. The Tarocco is one of the world’s most popular oranges because of its sweetness (Brix to acid ratio is generally above 12.0) and juiciness. It has the highest Vitamin C content of any orange variety grown in the world, mainly on account of the fertile soil surrounding Mount Etna, and it is easy to peel. The Tarocco orange is seedless.
The English word “flan” and the earlier forms “flaune” and “flawn” come from Old French flaon (modern French flan), in turn from early Medieval Latin fladōn-em, derived from Old High German flado, a sort of flat cake, probably from an Indo-European root for “flat” or “broad.”
The history of flan dates back all the way to the Ancient Romans. During Roman times, domesticated chickens were kept for laying eggs for the first time. The Romans, with eggs in surplus, developed new recipes, one of which turned out to be mixing creme and eggs to form a custard.
The recipe for flan survived the demise of the Roman Empire and spread to countries such as Spain, England and France, and the recipe adapted to the different cultures. Both sweet and savory flans, containing such ingredients as almonds, cheese, curd, spinach and fish, were very popular in Europe during the Middle Age.
In Spain it became a sweet custard generally made with caramelized sugar. The Moors introduced citrus and almonds. England, with its love for pastry crusts, developed a different kind of flan. This one makes use of a pastry shell with an open top filled with custard and often mixed with nuts or fruit.
How did the Mary Ann pan get its name? The name came from the Mary Ann Company that first made the pan in 1920 and the idea probably came from Germany. The pan was designed to make a light sponge cake with an indented top to hold custard, fruit, jelly or whipped cream. In Germany, flan pans were called obsttortenform which means “fruit cake pan” because most flans were served with fruit on top. They were also called tortenboden which means cake bottom. The Mary Ann pan was marketed during the 1920’s and was also made in smaller sizes.
The word dragée is pronounced dra-zhay; from Greek τραγήματα tragēmata “sweets, treats” (cf. τρώγω “to eat”) through Latin tragēmata “sweets” and French la dragée “a sweet with almond filling”.
A dragée is a bite-sized, colorful form of confectionery with a hard outer shell – which is often used for another purpose (e.g. decorative, symbolic, medicinal, etc.) in addition to consumption purely for enjoyment.
M&M’s, initially designed to allow easy transport and consumption of chocolate for the US Military, have evolved into a popular candy – but are also sold as decorative dragées in 25 different colors.
Also, to dredge: to sprinkle (food) with a powdered substance, typically flour or sugar. Late 16th century from obsolete dredge ‘sweetmeat, mixture of spices,’ from Old French dragie, perhaps via Latin from Greek tragēmata ‘spices.’
Low-temperature pasteurization slightly modifies milk flavor by driving off some of the more delicate aromas, but stabilizes it by inactivating enzymes and bacteria, and adds slightly sulfury and green-leaf notes (dimethyl sulfide, hexanal). High-temperature pasteurization or brief cooking—heating milk above 170°F/76°C—generates traces of many flavorful substances, including those characteristic of vanilla, almonds and cultured butter, as well as hydrogen sulfide. Prolonged boiling encourages browning or Maillard reactions between lactose and milk proteins, and generates molecules that combine to give the flavor of butterscotch.
Instead of imagining that our main task is to instruct a computer what to do, let us concentrate rather on explaining to human beings what we want a computer to do.
The text found in chapter 3, verse 16, of most books in the Bible is a typical verse with no special distinction. But when Donald Knuth examined what leading scholars throughout the centuries have written about those verses, he found that there is a fascinating story to be learned in every case, full of historical and spiritual insights. This book presents jargon-free introductions to each book of the Bible and in-depth analyses of what people from many different religious persuasions have said about the texts found in chapter 3, verse 16, together with 60 original illustrations by many of the world’s leading calligraphers.
The result is a grand tour of the Bible—from Genesis 3:16 to Revelation 3:16—a treat for the mind, the eyes, and the spirit.
Also known as a water bath or double boiler in English, a bain-marie is a piece of equipment used in science, industry, and cooking to heat materials gently and gradually to fixed temperatures, or to keep materials warm over a period of time.
Bains-marie were originally developed for use by alchemists, who believed that the best way to heat certain materials was by mimicking the natural processes occurring in the Earth’s core.
The name comes from the medieval Latin term balneum (or balineum) Mariae—from which the French bain de Marie, or bain-marie, is derived. There are many theories as to how the name Marie came to be associated with this equipment:
- The device’s invention has been popularly attributed to Mary the Jewess; according to The Jewish Alchemists, Maria the Jewess was an ancient alchemist who lived in Alexandria. Mythical traditions have suggested that she was Miriam, the sister of Moses.
- Alternatively, according to culinary writer Giuliano Bugialli, the term comes from the Italian bagno maria, named after Maria de’ Cleofa, who developed the technique in Florence in the sixteenth century, but earlier mentions (e.g. by Arnold de Villanova in the fourteenth century) seem to invalidate that attribution.
- Finally, some consider the name a reference to the Virgin Mary, whose proverbial gentleness can be likened to the gentleness of this cooking technique.
The strange and beautiful truth about the adjacent possible is that its boundaries grow as you explore them. Each new combination opens up the possibility of other new combinations. Think of it as a house that magically expands with each door you open. You begin in a room with four doors, each leading to a new room that you haven’t visited yet. Once you open one of those doors and stroll into that room, three new doors appear, each leading to a brand-new room that you couldn’t have reached from your original starting point. Keep opening new doors and eventually you’ll have built a palace.